政府论(上篇)
The First Treatise of Government

  • 作   者:

    洛克
    John Locke

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥5.90

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《政府论》的基本精神在于对政府职能、政府与社会的关系、政府与公民的关系等当时急需解决的问题提供基础答案,作者在上篇通过论证“天赋自由和平等”,驳斥了“君权神授”和“王位世袭”论,对资产阶级政治思想产生了很大的影响。

The First Treatise is an extended attack on Sir Robert Filmer's Patriarcha. Locke's argument proceeds along two lines: first, he undercuts the Scriptural support that Filmer had offered for his thesis, and second he argues that the acceptance of Filmer's thesis can lead only to slavery (and absurdity). Locke chose Filmer as his target, he says, because of his reputation and because he "carried this Argument farthest, and is supposed to have brought it to perfection".

《政府论》是英国约翰·洛克于1690年出版的政治著作,汇集了洛克的主要政治哲学思想,不仅使洛克成为古典自由主义思想的集大成者,而且对于后世的现实政治产生了深远的影响。该书分为上下两篇,上篇集中驳斥了当时占统治地位的君权神授说和王位世袭论,下篇系统地阐述了公民政府的真正起源、范围、目的。全书出色完成了为英国资产阶级革命辩护的任务,对英国政治、经济的发展起到了巨大的推动作用。

Two Treatises of Government, a work of political philosophy by John Locke, attacks patriarchalism in the form of sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Patriarcha, and outlines Locke's ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights and contract theory. From this, he goes on to explain the hypothetical rise of property and civilization, in the process explaining that the only legitimate governments are those that have the consent of the people. Therefore, any government that rules without the consent of the people can, in theory, be overthrown.

约翰·洛克(1632年8月29日-1704年10月28日)是英国的哲学家。在知识论上,洛克与乔治·贝克莱、大卫·休谟三人被列为英国经验主义的代表人物,但他也在社会契约理论上做出重要贡献。洛克的思想对于后代政治哲学的发展产生巨大影响,并且被广泛视为是启蒙时代最具影响力的思想家和自由主义者。他的著作也大为影响了伏尔泰和卢梭,以及许多苏格兰启蒙运动的思想家和美国开国元勋。他的理论被反映在美国的独立宣言上。

John Locke FRS (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Classical Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work greatly affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

1. Slavery is so vile and miserable an estate of man, and so directly opposite to the generous temper and courage of our nation; that it is hardly to be conceived, that an Englishman, much less a gentleman, should plead for it. And truly I should have taken Sir Robert Filmer’s Patriarcha as any other treatise, which would persuade all men, that they are slaves, and ought to be so, for such another exercise of wit, as was his who writ the encomium of Nero, rather than for a serious discourse meant in earnest, had not the gravity of the title and epistle, the Picture in the front of the book, and the applause that followed it, required me to believe, that the author and publisher were both in earnest.

  • Chapter I The Introduction

  • Chapter II Of Paternal and Regal Power

  • Chapter III Of Adam's Title to Sovereignty by Creation

  • Chapter IV Of Adam's Title to Sovereignty, by Donation

  • Chapter V Of Adam's Title to Sovereignty, by the Subjection of Eve.

  • Chapter VI Of Adam's Title to Sovereignty by Fatherhood

  • Chapter VII Of Fatherhood and Property considered together as Fountains of Sovereignty

  • Chapter VIII Of the Conveyance of Adam's sovereigns monarchical Power

  • Chapter IX Of Monarchy by Inheritance from Adam

  • Chapter X Of the Heir to Adam's Monarchical Power

  • Chapter XI Who Heir?

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