社会静力学
Social Statics

  • 作   者:

    赫伯特·斯宾塞
    Herbert Spencer

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

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  • 电子书:

    ¥9.90

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本书以自由思想为指导,提出了社会演化的规律,并通过逆向的论述结构,揭示了国家和社会的应然状态。首先提出理想社会的目标——幸福,进而指出实现幸福的间接方式,即依赖第一原理,然后论述第一原理的应用,具体说明人所享有的权利,是不可多得的思想巨著。

The essential point of this book is the freedom of thoughts. Apart from regulations of social development, the author also reveals the granted states of a country and a society.

《社会静力学》是斯宾塞的一部学术著作,也是他研究社会和政治学说的主要著作之一。斯宾塞以散文的形式完成了这本经典名著,他在每篇文章中都例举出大量实例来论证自己的观点。全书围绕“第一原理”,论述了社会、政府、人权、教育等各方面的问题,对这些问题在“第一原理”的前提下,提出独到见解。正如作者本人所言,这部著作“包含了自1850年以来已经有很大发展的一些思想和思想的萌芽”。

Social Statics is a masterpiece of Herbert Spencer. The author illustrates his arguments through a variety of examples and he attempts on various issues including society, government, human right, education and so on.

赫伯特·斯宾塞(1820—1903)是英国著名的社会学家、哲学家,是社会进化论和社会有机体论的早期代表人物。他早在达尔文的《物种起源》(1859)发表之前就提出了社会进化的思想,认为进化是一个普遍的规律,认为社会同生物一样是一个有机体,在这两种有机体之间存在着许多相似之处。因此他极力主张把生物学中“生存竞争、适者生存”的学说应用于社会领域。他的思想对世界各国社会学的发展产生了重要影响。早在1902年严复即以《群学肄言》的书名把他的代表作《社会学研究》译介到我国来。

Herbert Spencer was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies. He was "an enthusiastic exponent of evolution" and even "wrote about evolution before Darwin did."

BEING somewhat at variance with precedent, the tone and mode of treatment occasionally adopted in the following pages will, perhaps, provoke criticism. Whether, in thus innovating upon established usage, the writer has acted judiciously or otherwise, the event must determine. He has not, however, transgressed without adequate motive; having done so under the belief that, as it is the purpose of a book to influence conduct, the best way of writing a book must be the way best fitted to effect this purpose.

Should exception be taken to the manifestations of feeling now and then met with, as out of place in a treatise having so scientific a title; it is replied that, in their present phase of progress, men are but little swayed by purely intellectual considerations—that to be operative, these must be enforced by direct or implied appeals to the sentiments—and that, provided such appeals are not in place of, but merely supplementary to, the deductions of logic, no well-grounded objection can be made to them. The reader will find that the several conclusions submitted to him are primarily based on entirely impersonal reasoning, by which alone they may be judged; and if, for the sake of commending these conclusions to the [vi] many, the sympathies have been indirectly addressed, the general argument cannot have been thereby weakened, if it has not been strengthened.

Possibly the relaxations of style in some cases used, will be censured, as beneath the gravity of the subject. In defence of them it may be urged, that the measured movement which custom prescribes for philosophical works, is productive of a monotony extremely repulsive to the generality of readers. That no counterbalancing advantages are obtained, the writer does not assert. But, for his own part, he has preferred to sacrifice somewhat of conventional dignity, in the hope of rendering his theme interesting to a larger number.

  • PREFACE
  • INTRODUCTION.
  • THE DOCTRINE OF THE MORAL SENSE.
  • LEMMA I.
  • LEMMA II.
  • PART I.
  • CHAPTER II.
  • CHAPTER III.
  • PART II.
  • CHAPTER V.
  • CHAPTER VI.
  • CHAPTER VII.
  • CHAPTER VIII.
  • CHAPTER IX.
  • CHAPTER X.
  • CHAPTER XI.
  • CHAPTER XII.
  • CHAPTER XIII.
  • CHAPTER XIV.
  • CHAPTER XV.
  • CHAPTER XVI.
  • CHAPTER XVII.
  • PART III.
  • CHAPTER XIX.
  • CHAPTER XX.
  • CHAPTER XXI.
  • CHAPTER XXII.
  • CHAPTER XXIII.
  • CHAPTER XXIV.
  • CHAPTER XXV.
  • CHAPTER XXVI.
  • CHAPTER XXVII.
  • CHAPTER XXVIII.
  • CHAPTER XXIX.
  • PART IV.
  • CHAPTER XXXI.
  • CHAPTER XXXII.
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