神学大全(节选)
Summa Theologica

  • 作   者:

    圣托马斯·阿奎那
    Thomas Aquinas

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥9.90

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此书是基督教自中世纪以来最重要的教学基础,是必读的古典书籍。此书以严谨的逻辑,从哲学的认识论、本体论的角度,深刻地阐释了上帝、灵魂、道德、法和国家。

阿奎那的政治思想集中体现在《神学大全》的法律篇中。十三世纪这本书给西方神学界以革命性的影响,迫使他们承认自然秩序和自然理性的自立性和自主性,自然世界包括政治社会被赋予相应的独立地位,哲学和科学的独立地位也被承认,当时的神学与这种自然知识相协调。

The Summa is composed of three major parts, each of which deals with a major subsection of Christian theology.

The Summa Theologica is meant to summarize the history of the cosmos and provide an outline for the meaning of life itself.

The Summa theologiae is written in a form common to treatises of that age. All of theology is divided into its major topics. These, in turn, are divided into subtopics described by Thomas as 'questions. " The first "question" in the Summa theologiae deals with The nature of Theology itself, the second with God's existence.

在《神学大全》里,托马斯提出了证明上帝存在的五个证据,还讨论到了耶稣基督,他首先讲述了圣经里亚当和夏娃的故事,并且描述人类原罪的负面结果。他提出耶稣基督化身的目的是恢复人类的本质,协助人类移除他们身上“原罪的污染”。“神圣的智慧认为上帝应该化身为人,以这个单一而相同的化身改变人们并且提供救赎”。

同时,他还批评了当时许多对耶稣基督抱持不同观点的历史神学家。他指出耶稣是真的出自神授的,而不只是一个凡人。一个异教者认为上帝只不过是寄居了耶稣的肉身,托马斯则回复道上帝的完整乃是耶稣的存在所不可或缺的一部分。

The Summa Theologiae is the best-known work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274). Although unfinished, the Summa is "one of the classics of the history of philosophy and one of the most influential works of Western literature." It was intended as an instructional guide for theology students, including seminarians and the literate laity. It was a compendium of all of the main theological teachings of the Catholic Church. It presents the reasoning for almost all points of Christian theology in the West. The Summa's topics follow a cycle: the existence of God; Creation, Man; Man's purpose; Christ; the Sacraments; and back to God.

托马斯·阿奎纳(Thomas Aquinas,约1225年—1274年3月7日)是中世纪经院哲学的哲学家和神学家,他把理性引进神学,用 “自然法则”来论证“君权神圣”说。死后也被封为天使博士(天使圣师)或全能博士。他是自然神学最早的提倡者之一,也是托马斯哲学学派的创立者,成为天主教长期以来研究哲学的重要根据。他所撰写的最知名著作是《神学大全》(Summa Theologica)。天主教教会认为他是历史上最伟大的神学家,将其评为33位教会圣师之一。托马斯的著作卷帙浩繁,总字数在1500万字以上,其中包含着较多哲学观点的著作有:《箴言书注》、《论存在与本质》、《论自然原理》、《论真理》、《波埃修<;论三位一体>;注》,代表作为《反异教大全》、《神学大全》。

Thomas Aquinas, was an Italian Dominican friar and Catholic priest who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the "Doctor Angelicus" and "Doctor Communis".He is heralded as the most influential Western medieval legal scholar and theologist. The name "Aquinas" identifies his ancestral origins in the county of Aquino (in the present-day Lazio region), an area where his family held land until 1137.

In this matter we shall consider first the last end of human life; and secondly, those things by means of which man may advance towards this end, or stray from the path: for the end is the rule of whatever is ordained to the end. And since the last end of human life is stated to be happiness, we must consider the last end in general; happiness.

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