公民对国家
The Man Versus the State

  • 作   者:

    赫伯特·斯宾塞
    Herbert Spencer

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥4.90

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安东尼奥相信公民社会是政治活动的首要活动中心,因为在这里所有“身份形成,意识形态的挣扎,学者的活动,霸权主义的构建”,公民社会同样是联结经济和政治领域的中心,他认为政治学不是“政治管理的单项进程”,相反,而是在政党活动和政府组织给定的前提下进行的公民组织的活动.

安东尼奥相信公民社会是政治活动的首要活动中心,因为在这里所有“身份形成,意识形态的挣扎,学者的活动,霸权主义的构建”,公民社会同样是联结经济和政治领域的中心,他认为政治学不是“政治管理的单项进程”,相反,而是在政党活动和政府组织给定的前提下进行的公民组织的活动.

Antonio Gramsci believed that civil society is the primary locus of political activity because it is where all forms of "identity formation, ideological struggle, the activities of intellectuals, and the construction of hegemony take place." and that civil society was the nexus connecting the economic and political sphere. He stated that politics was not a "one-way process of political management" but, rather, that the activities of civil organizations conditioned the activities of political parties and state institutions, and were conditioned by them in turn.

赫伯特·斯宾塞(Herbert Spencer,1820年4月27日–1903年12月8日),英国哲学家。他为人所共知的就是“社会达尔文主义之父”,所提出一套的学说把进化理论适者生存应用在社会学上尤其是教育及阶级斗争。但是,他的著作对很多课题都有贡献,包括规范、形而上学、宗教、政治、修辞、生物和心理学等等。在斯宾塞的时代存在许多著名哲学家和科学家,譬如约翰·斯图亚特·穆勒(John Stewart Mill)、汤马士·亨利·赫胥黎和查尔斯·达尔文都是当代知名的人物。他为人所共知的就是“社会达尔文主义之父”,所提出一套的学说把进化理论适者生存应用在社会学上尤其是教育及阶级斗争。

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.Spencer developed an all-embracing conception of evolution as the progressive development of the physical world, biological organisms, the human mind, and human culture and societies. He was "an enthusiastic exponent of evolution" and even "wrote about evolution before Darwin did."As a polymath, he contributed to a wide range of subjects, including ethics, religion, anthropology, economics, political theory, philosophy, literature, biology, sociology, and psychology. During his lifetime he achieved tremendous authority, mainly in English-speaking academia. "The only other English philosopher to have achieved anything like such widespread popularity was Bertrand Russell, and that was in the 20th century." Spencer was "the single most famous European intellectual in the closing decades of the nineteenth century" but his influence declined sharply after 1900; "Who now reads Spencer?" asked Talcott Parsons in 1937.Spencer is best known for the expression "survival of the fittest", which he coined in Principles of Biology (1864), after reading Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. This term strongly suggests natural selection, yet as Spencer extended evolution into realms of sociology and ethics, he also made use of Lamarckism.

Most of those who now pass as Liberals, are Tories of a new type. This is a paradox which I propose to justify. That I may justify it, I must first point out what the two political parties originally were; and I must then ask the reader to bear with me while I remind him of facts he is familiar with, that I may impress on him the intrinsic natures of Toryism and Liberalism properly so called.Dating back to an earlier period than their names, the two political parties at first stood respectively for two opposed types of social organization, broadly distinguishable as the militant and the industrial — types which are characterized, the one by the regime of status, almost universal in ancient days, and the other by the regime of contract, which has become general in modern days, chiefly among the Western nations, and especially among ourselves and the Americans. If, instead of using the word "co-operation" in a limited sense, we use it in its widest sense, as signifying the combined activities of citizens under whatever system of regulation; then these two are definable as the system of compulsory co-operation and the system of voluntary co-operation. The typical structure of the one we see in an army formed of conscripts, in which the units in their several grades have to fulfil commands under pain of death, and receive food and clothing and pay, arbitrarily apportioned; while the typical structure of the other we see in a body of producers or distributors, who severally agree to specified payments in return for specified services, and may at will, after due notice, leave the organization if they do not like it.

  • Preface

  • THE NEW TORYISM

  • THE COMING SLAVERY

  • THE SINS OF LEGISLATORS

  • THE GREAT POLITICAL SUPERSTITION

  • POSTSCRIPT

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