人口学原理
An Essay on the Principle of Population

  • 作   者:

    马尔萨斯
    Thomas Robert Malthus

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

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A key portion of the book was dedicated to what is now known as Malthus' Iron Law of Population. This name itself is retrospective, based on the iron law of wages, which is the reformulation of Malthus' position by Ferdinand Lassalle, who in turn derived the name from Goethe's "great, eternal iron laws" in Das Göttliche. This theory suggested that growing population rates would contribute to a rising supply of labour that would inevitably lower wages. In essence, Malthus feared that continued population growth would lend itself to poverty.

《人口学原理》于1798年由人口学家马尔萨斯发表,为政治经济学的经典之作。《人口学原理》的基本思想是: 1.如没有限制,人口是指数增长。 2.而食物供应呈现线性增长。 3.食物为人类生存的最重要之条件。 4.只有自然原因(事故和衰老),灾难(战争,瘟疫,及各类饥荒),道德限制和罪恶(马尔萨斯所指包括杀婴,谋杀,节育和同性恋)能够限制人口的过度增长。

马尔萨斯注意到许多人误用他的理论,痛苦地阐明他没有仅仅预测未来的大灾难。他辩解道,“……周期性灾难持续存在的原因自人类有史以来就已经存在,目前仍然存在,并且将来会继续存在,除非我们的大自然的物理结构发生决定性的变化。”因此,马尔萨斯认为他的《人口学原理》是对人类过去和目前状况的解释,以及对我们未来的预测。

The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published in 1798 under the alias Joseph Johnson., but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus. While it was not the first book on population, it has been acknowledged as the most influential work of its era. Its 6th edition was independently cited as a key influence by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in developing the theory of natural selection.

托马斯·罗伯特·马尔萨斯(1766年2月13日-1834年12月23日),英国人口学家和政治经济学家。他的《人口学原理》影响深远,至今在社会学和经济学领域仍有争论。

Thomas Robert Malthus(13 February 1766–29 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert. His An Essay on the Principle of Population observed that sooner or later population will be checked by famine and disease, leading to what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe. He wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. He thought that the dangers of population growth precluded progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man".

Yet in all societies, even those that are most vicious, the tendency to a virtuous attachment is so strong that there is a constant effort towards an increase of population. This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of the society to distress and to prevent any great permanent amelioration of their condition

  • Preface
  • CHAPTER 1
  • CHAPTER 2
  • CHAPTER 3
  • CHAPTER 4
  • CHAPTER 5
  • CHAPTER 6
  • CHAPTER 7
  • CHAPTER 8
  • CHAPTER 9
  • CHAPTER 10
  • CHAPTER 11
  • CHAPTER 12
  • CHAPTER 13
  • CHAPTER 14
  • CHAPTER 15
  • CHAPTER 16
  • CHAPTER 17
  • CHAPTER 18
  • CHAPTER 19
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