On Liberty

  • 作   者:

    John Stuart Mill

  • 出版社:

    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

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On Liberty is a philosophical work that originally is intended as a short essay. The work, published in 1859, applies Mill's ethical system of utilitarianism to society and the state. Mill attempts to establish standards for the relationship between authority and liberty. He emphasizes the importance of individuality which he conceived as a prerequisite to the higher pleasures—the summum bonum of Utilitarianism. Furthermore, Mill criticised the errors of past attempts to defend individuality where, for example, democratic ideals resulted in the "tyranny of the majority". Among the standards established in this work are Mill's three basic liberties of individuals, his three legitimate objections to government intervention, and his two maxims regarding the relationship of the individual to society "which together form the entire doctrine of Mill's Essay."



On Liberty was a greatly influential and well received work, although it did not go without criticism. Some attacked it for its apparent discontinuity with Utilitarianism, while others criticised its vagueness. The ideas presented in On Liberty have remained the basis of much liberal political thought. It has remained in print continuously since its initial publication. To this day, a copy of On Liberty is passed to the president of the British Liberal Democrats as a symbol of office. A copy of the same book is also presented to and then held by the resident of the Liberal Party as a symbol of office.

约翰·斯图尔特·穆勒(John Stuart Mill,也译作约翰·斯图亚特·密尔),英国著名哲学家和经济学家,19世纪影响力很大的古典自由主义思想家,边沁后功利主义的最重要代表人物之一。他一生以新闻记者和作家的身份写了不少著作,是孔德的实证主义哲学的后继者。他把实证主义思想最早从欧洲大陆传播到英国,并与英国经验主义传统相结合。

John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century". Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. Mill was also a Member of Parliament and an important figure in liberal political philosophy.

  • Epigraph and Dedication to Fourth Edition

  • Chapter 1: Introductory

  • Chapter 2: Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion

  • Chapter 3: Of Individuality, as one of the Elements of Well-Being

  • Chapter 4: Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual

  • Chapter 5: Applications

  • THE subject of this Essay is not the so-called Liberty of the... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    Collective liberty VS. Individual liberty?

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  • But with regard to the merely contingent or, as it may be... 全部评论(1) 去书内


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  • In the one case, he is an offender at our bar, and we are... 全部评论(1) 去书内


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  • In these various modes a person may suffer very severe... 全部评论(1) 去书内


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  • Meanwhile, recollecting that nothing was ever yet done which... 全部评论(1) 去书内


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  • Doubtless, however, these considerations will not suffice to... 全部评论(1) 去书内


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  • The means of development which the individual loses by being... 全部评论(1) 去书内


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  • Thus the mind itself is bowed to the yoke: even in what... 全部评论(1) 去书内


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  • or, what would suit my character and disposition? or, what... 全部评论(1) 去书内


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  • And these qualities he requires and exercises exactly in... 全部评论(1) 去书内


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