论自由
On Liberty

  • 作   者:

    约翰.密尔
    John Stuart Mill

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥5.90

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对个人自由最强有力的辩护;不读此书,就不了解自由主义的真谛。

On Liberty is a philosophical work that originally is intended as a short essay. The work, published in 1859, applies Mill's ethical system of utilitarianism to society and the state. Mill attempts to establish standards for the relationship between authority and liberty. He emphasizes the importance of individuality which he conceived as a prerequisite to the higher pleasures—the summum bonum of Utilitarianism. Furthermore, Mill criticised the errors of past attempts to defend individuality where, for example, democratic ideals resulted in the "tyranny of the majority". Among the standards established in this work are Mill's three basic liberties of individuals, his three legitimate objections to government intervention, and his two maxims regarding the relationship of the individual to society "which together form the entire doctrine of Mill's Essay."

本书是十九世纪英国哲学家、逻辑学和经济学家约翰·穆勒最重要的政治著作。该书围绕“论思想自由和讨论自由”、“论个性自由”、“论社会对个人自由的控制”三大中心论题展开,论述了资本主义制度下的公民自由权利,是自由理论体系的集大成之作,在西方被高度评价为“对个人自由最动人心弦,最强有力的辩护”。本书的重要性在于第一次赋予自由主义完整而全面的理论形式,从心理学、认识论、历史观、伦理观等角度为当时已经达到黄金时期的自由主义提供了哲学基础,并以充沛的激情与清晰的逻辑对个人自由的理想作出强有力的辩护。

《论自由》共5章,以公民自由为中心,对自由问题进行了多方面的阐述。此书写于1859年,在西方政治思想史和西方社会产生了深远影响。密尔在《论自由》中开宗明义,阐明《论自由》的主题不是讨论所谓意志自由,而是“公民自由或社会自由”,“即社会可以合法地施加于个人的权力之性质和界限。”这部著作的要义可以概括为,只要不涉及他人的利益,个人(成人)就有完全的行动自由,只有当自己的言行危害他人的利益时,个人才应接受社会的强制性惩罚。这就是密尔所划定的个人与社会的权利界限。如果整个人类,除一人之外,意见都一致,而只有那一个人持相反意见,人类也没有理由不让那个人说话。正如那个人一旦大权在握,也没有理由不让人类说话一样。《论自由》还探讨了自由理论在实际生活中的应用,简单将之归结为两句格言:第一,个人的行动只要不涉及自身以外什么人的利害,个人就不必向社会负责交代;第二,关于对他人利益有害的行动,个人则应当负责交代,并且还应当承受或是社会的或是法律的惩罚,假如社会的意见认为需要用这种或那种惩罚来保护它自己的话。

On Liberty was a greatly influential and well received work, although it did not go without criticism. Some attacked it for its apparent discontinuity with Utilitarianism, while others criticised its vagueness. The ideas presented in On Liberty have remained the basis of much liberal political thought. It has remained in print continuously since its initial publication. To this day, a copy of On Liberty is passed to the president of the British Liberal Democrats as a symbol of office. A copy of the same book is also presented to and then held by the resident of the Liberal Party as a symbol of office.

约翰·斯图尔特·穆勒(John Stuart Mill,也译作约翰·斯图亚特·密尔),英国著名哲学家和经济学家,19世纪影响力很大的古典自由主义思想家,边沁后功利主义的最重要代表人物之一。他一生以新闻记者和作家的身份写了不少著作,是孔德的实证主义哲学的后继者。他把实证主义思想最早从欧洲大陆传播到英国,并与英国经验主义传统相结合。

John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century". Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. Mill was also a Member of Parliament and an important figure in liberal political philosophy.

  • Epigraph and Dedication to Fourth Edition

  • Chapter 1: Introductory

  • Chapter 2: Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion

  • Chapter 3: Of Individuality, as one of the Elements of Well-Being

  • Chapter 4: Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual

  • Chapter 5: Applications

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