论自由
On Liberty

  • 作   者:

    约翰·穆勒
    John Stuart Mill

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 版   本:

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  • 电子书:

    ¥5.90

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《论自由》共5章,以公民自由为中心,对自由问题进行了多方面的阐述。此书写于1859年,在西方政治思想史和西方社会产生了深远影响。密尔在《论自由》中开宗明义,阐明《论自由》的主题不是讨论所谓意志自由,而是“公民自由或社会自由”,“即社会可以合法地施加于个人的权力之性质和界限。”这部著作的要义可以概括为,只要不涉及他人的利益,个人(成人)就有完全的行动自由,只有当自己的言行危害他人的利益时,个人才应接受社会的强制性惩罚。这就是密尔所划定的个人与社会的权利界限。如果整个人类,除一人之外,意见都一致,而只有那一个人持相反意见,人类也没有理由不让那个人说话。正如那个人一旦大权在握,也没有理由不让人类说话一样。《论自由》还探讨了自由理论在实际生活中的应用,简单将之归结为两句格言:第一,个人的行动只要不涉及自身以外什么人的利害,个人就不必向社会负责交代;第二,关于对他人利益有害的行动,个人则应当负责交代,并且还应当承受或是社会的或是法律的惩罚,假如社会的意见认为需要用这种或那种惩罚来保护它自己的话。

On Liberty is a philosophical work that originally is intended as a short essay. The work, published in 1859, applies Mill's ethical system of utilitarianism to society and the state. Mill attempts to establish standards for the relationship between authority and liberty. He emphasizes the importance of individuality which he conceived as a prerequisite to the higher pleasures—the summum bonum of Utilitarianism. Furthermore, Mill criticised the errors of past attempts to defend individuality where, for example, democratic ideals resulted in the "tyranny of the majority". Among the standards established in this work are Mill's three basic liberties of individuals, his three legitimate objections to government intervention, and his two maxims regarding the relationship of the individual to society "which together form the entire doctrine of Mill's Essay."

本书是十九世纪英国哲学家、逻辑学和经济学家约翰·穆勒最重要的政治著作。该书围绕“论思想自由和讨论自由”、“论个性自由”、“论社会对个人自由的控制”三大中心论题展开,论述了资本主义制度下的公民自由权利,是自由理论体系的集大成之作,在西方被高度评价为“对个人自由最动人心弦,最强有力的辩护”。本书的重要性在于第一次赋予自由主义完整而全面的理论形式,从心理学、认识论、历史观、伦理观等角度为当时已经达到黄金时期的自由主义提供了哲学基础,并以充沛的激情与清晰的逻辑对个人自由的理想作出强有力的辩护。

On Liberty was a greatly influential and well received work, although it did not go without criticism. Some attacked it for its apparent discontinuity with Utilitarianism, while others criticised its vagueness. The ideas presented in On Liberty have remained the basis of much liberal political thought. It has remained in print continuously since its initial publication. To this day, a copy of On Liberty is passed to the president of the British Liberal Democrats as a symbol of office. A copy of the same book is also presented to and then held by the resident of the Liberal Party as a symbol of office.

约翰·斯图尔特·穆勒(John Stuart Mill,也译作约翰·斯图亚特·密尔),英国著名哲学家和经济学家,19世纪影响力很大的古典自由主义思想家,边沁后功利主义的最重要代表人物之一。他一生以新闻记者和作家的身份写了不少著作,是孔德的实证主义哲学的后继者。他把实证主义思想最早从欧洲大陆传播到英国,并与英国经验主义传统相结合。

John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist and civil servant. He was an influential contributor to social theory, political theory and political economy. He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century". Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. Mill was also a Member of Parliament and an important figure in liberal political philosophy.

  • Epigraph and Dedication to Fourth Edition
  • Chapter 1: Introductory
  • Chapter 2: Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion
  • Chapter 3: Of Individuality, as one of the Elements of Well-Being
  • Chapter 4: Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual
  • Chapter 5: Applications
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  • THE subject of this Essay is not the so-called Liberty of the... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    Collective liberty VS. Individual liberty?

    2016-11-16 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • But with regard to the merely contingent or, as it may be... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    比如说醉酒撞车,人没事,这种情况算不算呢?

    2015-11-08 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • In the one case, he is an offender at our bar, and we are... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    前文说到对于他人的只关涉自己的行为,我们可以在不干涉他个性的前提下行使自己的个性:远离他,告诉别人他是危险的等等,通过这些行为可能会对他造成伤害,但这个我们是不负有责任的。

    2015-11-04 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • In these various modes a person may suffer very severe... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    个人在关涉自身的事情上收到来自其他人的惩罚,这不是这些其他人有意为之,而是这个人犯了错误这件事的本性使然,那这就等同于说我因为自己的堕落受到他人的惩罚只能责怪自己。同时也为这些其他人正名,即只要这些“其他人”发现某一个人道德败坏时,这些人就有理由來惩戒这个人,尽管他并没有做出危害他人利益的事。

    2015-11-04 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • Meanwhile, recollecting that nothing was ever yet done which... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    我们既要相信世上所有我们正在做的事都来源于创造力,又不能完全依赖于他们,还有很多事需要等待创造力去发掘,每个人都有可能成为第一人。

    2015-10-26 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • Doubtless, however, these considerations will not suffice to... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    看看那些奴隶们,得到了什么回报?难不成是相信了世间有轮回,他们在来世可能获得更好;或者说他们可以取代那些奴隶主们上天堂,那么他们是否还要感谢奴役他们的人,谢谢他们把去天堂的机会让给了他们!

    2015-10-25 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • The means of development which the individual loses by being... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    个人被限制的个性由他人的发展来补偿,多么奇怪的逻辑啊,往好了说是以大局为重,整个社会的利益为先;往坏了说,就满足了这些“他人”的私欲,这样是很危险的。要使整句话成立,那么个人应当是要在自愿的情况下牺牲自己的利益,而非是因受到了社会的压制。

    2015-10-25 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • Thus the mind itself is bowed to the yoke: even in what... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    为了合群而放弃自己的本性与为了张扬自我而过渡放纵个人欲望都是不值得推选推崇的。

    2015-10-25 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • or, what would suit my character and disposition? or, what... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    对于中国古代的皇帝而言,在自己的国度内找不到和自己一样有身份的人,无从模仿;其次他们所做的也应当是合乎自己身份的事,而不是事事都按照自己的意志来,这就是所谓的在其位谋其政。

    2015-10-25 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

  • And these qualities he requires and exercises exactly in... 全部评论(1) 去书内

    求解释?

    2015-10-25 喜欢(0) 回复(0)

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