人口论
An Essay on the Principle of Population

  • 作   者:

    托马斯·罗伯特·马尔萨斯
    Thomas Robert Malthus

  • 出版社:

    外语教学与研究出版社
    Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press

  • 语   言:

    英文

  • 支   持:

  • 电子书:

    ¥4.90

  • 0(0人评过)
  •   评论(0)
  •   读后感(0)

马尔萨斯的《人口论》是从以下“两个公理”出发的:“第一,食物为人类生存所必需。第二,两性间的情欲是必然的,且几乎会保持现状。”马尔萨斯断言,在这两个前提之下,人口的增殖比生活资料的增长要快。正常情况下,人口每25年以几何级数率增加,而生活资料只以算术级数率增长,因而人口增长势必有超过生活资料增长的趋势。他说,假设世界现有人口十亿,人口将以1、2、4、8、16、32、64、128、256、512那样呈几何级数增加,而生活资料则按照1、2、3、4、5、6、7、8、9、10那样呈算术级数增加,在225年内,人口对生活资料的比率将会是512对10之比。

马尔萨斯认为,人类生存所必需的生活资料是有自然规律限制的,而人类的情欲必然导致人口增长超过生活资料的增长,使二者出现不平衡。此时,人口自然规律必然要求二者之间恢复平衡,它必然会产生一种强大的妨碍来阻止人口增长。这种妨碍就是贫困与罪恶,它表现为失业、疾病、饥荒、瘟疫、暴行、战争等等。这就是马尔萨斯在《人口论》中的所谓对人口增长的“积极抑制”。其实,所谓“积极抑制”就是用提供人口死亡率的办法使人口与生活资料之间保持平衡。在《人口论》第二版,马尔萨斯又提出所谓“预防抑制”,其中最主要的是“道德抑制”。所谓“道德抑制”就是主张人们用晚婚、独身、不育、禁欲的办法来降低人口出生率,以保持人口增长与生活资料增长之间的平衡。于是,在《人口论》第二版,马尔萨斯把他所发现的人口规律归结为三点:1.人口增长必然被生活资料所限制;2.只要生活资料增长,人口一定会坚定不移地增长,除非受到某些非常有力而又显著的抑制的阻止;3.这些抑制,以及那些遏制人口的优势力量,并使其结果与生活资料保持同一水平的抑制,全部可归结为道德的节制、罪恶和贫困。这三个命题就是马尔萨斯所说的,支配人类命运的人口自然规律的基本内容,也是马尔萨斯主义的基本内容。

马尔萨斯还从上述所谓人口自然规律引申出以下主要结论:

第一,马尔萨斯认为失业和贫困不是社会制度造成的,而是人口自然规律作用的结果,是人类无法避免的命运。平等社会、财产公有制只是一种幻想。

第二,马尔萨斯认为,财产私有制是由人口自然规律的支配而产生的,是永恒的,不可消灭的。它是人口增长同生活资料增长之间,保持平衡的最有效的和最好的制度。

第三,马尔萨斯认为,在人口规律的支配下,工人的工资水平将随人口增长速度的高低而变动。他断言人口增长先于生活资料增长,从而工人人数众多,工资低廉,其结果势必使生活更坏。

第四,马尔萨斯从他的人口原理出发,反对当时英国实行的《济贫法》,力图论证《济贫法》有害无益,是一种使国家破产的制度。

第五,在《人口论》中,马尔萨斯还谈到中国的人口问题,认为人口规律在中国也发生作用,中国同样存在人口过剩的问题,中国人口增长超过生活资料增长,必然受到预防性抑制和积极性抑制的影响。

The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published in 1798 under the alias Joseph Johnson, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus. While it was not the first book on population, it has been acknowledged as the most influential work of its era. Its 6th edition was independently cited as a key influence by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in developing the theory of natural selection.

A key portion of the book was dedicated to what is now known as Malthus' Iron Law of Population. This name itself is retrospective, based on the iron law of wages, which is the reformulation of Malthus' position by Ferdinand Lassalle, who in turn derived the name from Goethe's "great, eternal iron laws" in Das Göttliche. This theory suggested that growing population rates would contribute to a rising supply of labour that would inevitably lower wages. In essence, Malthus feared that continued population growth would lend itself to poverty.

One immediate impact of Malthus's book was that it fueled the debate about the size of the population in Britain and led to (or at least greatly accelerated) the passing of the Census Act 1800. This Act enabled the holding of a national census in England, Wales and Scotland, starting in 1801 and continuing every ten years to the present.

In 1803, Malthus published a major revision to his first edition, as the same title second edition; his final version, the 6th edition, was published in 1826. However, in 1830, 32 years after the first edition, Malthus published a condensed version titled A Summary View on the Principle of Population, which included remarks about criticisms of the main book.

《人口论》于1798年由人口学家马尔萨斯发表,为工业革命前,人均生产力不足时期政治经济学的经典之作。

《人口论》是马尔萨斯著作中最有影响的一部,最初发表时没有署名,但是由于拥有广泛的读者,他一鸣惊人。

马尔萨斯在《人口论》一书中提出的“人口理论”不仅在当时引起了巨大的社会反响,而且对后世的各种人口研究也有极为深刻的影响,而他的“有效需求论”对20世纪英国最伟大的经济学家约翰·梅纳德·凯恩斯的有效需求理论有着重要的启发,后者在关于马尔萨斯的一篇传记中以崇敬的口吻称其为“第一位剑桥经济学家”,称颂他“有深刻的经济学直觉,不但能够对变换的经验图景保持一颗开放的头脑,而且一直不间断地以他的规范思想中的原理来解释经验”。

The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published in 1798 under the alias Joseph Johnson, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus. While it was not the first book on population, it has been acknowledged as the most influential work of its era. Its 6th edition was independently cited as a key influence by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in developing the theory of natural selection.

A key portion of the book was dedicated to what is now known as Malthus' Iron Law of Population. This name itself is retrospective, based on the iron law of wages, which is the reformulation of Malthus' position by Ferdinand Lassalle, who in turn derived the name from Goethe's "great, eternal iron laws" in Das Göttliche. This theory suggested that growing population rates would contribute to a rising supply of labour that would inevitably lower wages. In essence, Malthus feared that continued population growth would lend itself to poverty.

One immediate impact of Malthus's book was that it fueled the debate about the size of the population in Britain and led to (or at least greatly accelerated) the passing of the Census Act 1800. This Act enabled the holding of a national census in England, Wales and Scotland, starting in 1801 and continuing every ten years to the present.

In 1803, Malthus published a major revision to his first edition, as the same title second edition; his final version, the 6th edition, was published in 1826. However, in 1830, 32 years after the first edition, Malthus published a condensed version titled A Summary View on the Principle of Population, which included remarks about criticisms of the main book.

托马斯·罗伯特·马尔萨斯牧师(Thomas Robert Malthus,1766年2月13日-1834年12月23日)。英国经济学家,出生于一个富有的家庭,他的父亲丹尼尔是哲学家、怀疑论者大卫·休谟和让·雅各·卢梭的朋友。马尔萨斯年幼时在家接受教育,直到1784年被剑桥大学耶稣学院录取。他在那里学习了许多课程,并且在辩论、拉丁文和希腊文课程中获奖。他的主修科目是数学。1791年他获得硕士学位,并且在两年后当选为耶稣学院院士。1797年他被按立为圣公会的乡村牧师。他是英国人口学家和政治经济学家。他的学术思想悲观但影响深远。

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766–23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography. Malthus himself used only his middle name Robert.

His An Essay on the Principle of Population observed that sooner or later population will be checked by famine and disease, leading to what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe. He wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. He thought that the dangers of population growth precluded progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man". As a cleric, Malthus saw this situation as divinely imposed to teach virtuous behaviour. Malthus wrote:

That the increase of population is necessarily limited by the means of subsistence,

That population does invariably increase when the means of subsistence increase, and,

That the superior power of population is repressed, and the actual population kept equal to the means of subsistence, by misery and vice.

Malthus placed the longer-term stability of the economy above short-term expediency. He criticized the Poor Laws, and (alone among important contemporary economists) supported the Corn Laws, which introduced a system of taxes on British imports of wheat. His views became influential, and controversial, across economic, political, social and scientific thought. Pioneers of evolutionary biology read him, notably Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. He remains a much-debated writer.

  • CHAPTER Preface

  • CHAPTER 1

  • CHAPTER 2

  • CHAPTER 3

  • CHAPTER 4

  • CHAPTER 5

  • CHAPTER 6

  • CHAPTER 7

  • CHAPTER 8

  • CHAPTER 9

  • CHAPTER 10

  • CHAPTER 11

  • CHAPTER 12

  • CHAPTER 13

  • CHAPTER 14

  • CHAPTER 15

  • CHAPTER 16

  • CHAPTER 17

  • CHAPTER 18

  • CHAPTER 19

    暂时还没有读后感,等待第一篇…